Types of trafficking

Child Trafficking

When a child (younger than 18 years of age) is subject to the recruitment, transportation, harboring, transfer, and/or receipt for the purpose of exploitation. The trafficking in children may take place within a country, across national borders and across continents, and is closely interlinked with the demand for cheap in sectors and among employers where the working conditions and the treatment grossly violates the human rights of the children. These are characterized by environments that are unacceptable (the unconditional worst forms) as well as dangerous to the health and the development of the child (hazardous worst forms). These forms range from bonded labor, camel jockeying, child domestic labor, commercial sexual exploitation, prostitution and child pornography, drug couriering, and child soldiering to exploitative or slavery-like practices in the informal industrial sector.

No force or deception is required when it is trafficking in children because children are too young to be expected to make adult decisions. There are no exceptions to this rule: no cultural or socio-economic justifications can be made when it comes to the exploitation of children. Child trafficking is the second largest form of human trafficking worldwide.

Labor Trafficking

Labor traffickers often make false promises of a well paying jobs or exciting education or travel opportunities to lure people into exploitative working conditions. Yet, victims find that the reality of their jobs are far different than promised and must frequently work long hours for little or no pay. Their employers use physical or psychological control, including physical abuse, threats, lies, debt bondage and other forms of coercion, confiscation of passports or money and credit cards, and make the victim believe they have no other choice but to continue working for that employer. Migrants are particularly vulnerable to this form of human trafficking and it can also take place within a country or town where the victim is from.

Some of the signs to look for are:

• Pay below the legal amount

• Deductions from pay checks that are not part of the contract or agreement

• Limited or no time off

• Unpaid wages

• Excessively long work hours without rest days

• Confiscation of ID documents

• Little or no freedom of movement

• Deception/intimidation

• Physical or sexual violence

Types of Labor Trafficking:

• Forced Labor -is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment. Victims’ freedom is often restricted. Forms of forced labor can include domestic servitude, agricultural labor, work in fishing industry, construction site labor, work in hospitality sector, street begging, etc.

• Bonded Labor -is when a person is tricked or trapped into working to repay a loan or service in which its terms and conditions have not been defined or in which the value of the victims’ services are reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt. The value of their work is significantly greater than the original sum of money borrowed.

• Child labor -is a form of work that is likely to be hazardous to the health and/or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development of children and can interfere with their education. The International Labor Organization estimates worldwide that there are 246 million exploited children aged between 5 and 17 involved in debt bondage, forced recruitment for armed conflict, prostitution, pornography, the illegal drug trade, the illegal arms trade and other illicit activities around the world.

Sex Trafficking

Sex trafficking can take different forms, such as forced prostitution, sexual exploitation as a means to pay off unlawful “debt”, forced participation in pornography, stripping and sex tourism. Like other forms of human trafficking, it must involve the act, means and purpose outlined above in the human trafficking section. Signs to look for include luring of women and girls, boys and men through manipulation and false promises of love and affection.

• A person involved in sex for money or other benefits

• A child (under 18 years old) used for sexual purposes

• An adult engaging in prostitution or other commercial sexual activities

• Sex trafficking is a high-tech, globalized, electronic market, and predators are involved at all levels

Types of sex trafficking: Forced sexual exploitation in that may include, Prostitution, Pornography, Mail-order Bride, Military Prostitution, Sex Tourism.

Organ Trafficking

The purpose of organ trafficking is to exploit someone for their body part(s). The victim may be forced, or deceived into a situation where their organs are taken and sold. In some cases victims may agree to sell an organ and then are exploited by not being paid, or paid less than promised. Organ trafficking can affect anyone, men and women, girls and boys. The most common organs that are harvested and trafficked include kidneys and liver.

Acquired in many different and terrible ways:

• Kidnapped

• Killed

• Deception or coercion

• Financial desperation

• Victims may go to a doctor or hospital for an unrelated illness or accident and the person’s kidney is removed without their knowledge or consent

Organ trade involves those at the highest/middle class levels of society: surgeons, doctors, laboratory technicians, travel agents, as well as criminals.

Human Trafficking affects millions of people worldwide, is a growing criminal industry and is closely associated with other types of crime and abuses. No community is immune, anyone can be affected by human trafficking.

Learn to Identify Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is difficult to spot, it takes a trained observer to see the indicators. This type of crime is typically disguised with normal behaviors.



“This website was funded by a grant from the United States Department of State. The opinions, findings and conclusions
stated herein are those of the author[s] and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State”.